Edited by: Yaakov Yehoshua Fleisher
Published in Tel Aviv, 1973This is a partial translation of the Hebrew chapters of the Tarnobrzeg-Dzikow Yizkor book focusing primarily on information that might be of interest to genealogists.
|Beer Sheva, Israel|
The article jumps almost immediately into a description of the marketplace (although it is not clear what year it is)
A round building in the market was used as the first prison, but later on it served as Engleberg's bookstore.
During the early 1600's the town grew and during the regin of Zygmont Tarmnowski it was officially united with Dzikow (or vice versa).
An invasion of the Swedish army under Karl Gustav resulted in great damage to the city. From a record of family names we can see that the population was mainly Polish, but with a significant portion of Jews. Therefore, by the middle of the 17th century there was a synagogue, an autonomous community organization and a rabbinical court.
When Poland was divided between its 3 neighbors Austria received the territory on the right bank of the Vistula to where the San runs into it. Tarnobrzeg became part of the province of Zhizhov (Raisha/Rzeszow). The city suffered neglect and was in a period of great decline. This was compounded by the Russians refusing to allow pilgrims from its side of the border to visit one of the important catherdrals in the area.
With the establishment of the Polish legion within the borders of Italy the first signs of revival sprouted, and the region was witness to battles led by Prince Yosef Poynitosky.
June 6 1862 saw the almost total destruction of the city by an enormous fire, which began in a warehouse, owned by a Jew, where kerosene was stored. Only a few houses were left standing. Rebuilding began almost immediately.
In 1867 the polticial boundaries of Galicia were changes and Tarnobrzeg was declared the regional capital.
In 1876 a city council was set up in conformance with the liberatization underway in the Austrian empire.
There were serious fires again in 1884 and 1888, and in 1891 a fire department was established. The laying of a rail line between Dembica and Rozwadow in 1887 marked the beginning if a major boom. It is only a pity that the Tarnobrzeg station was 3 km from the town.
CAPTION p. 21 - Monument to Bartek Globiski, dedicated in September 1904.
The city council had some important initiatives including the establishment of secondary schools, a regional court, and a rail link to Raisha.
"I bring some interesting facts that appear in a brochure published by the Jigelow University to celebrate its 600th anniversary (from which the article Shaller quotes was taken). This is about the only historical document about our town. Requests to Polish authorities for additional information have gone unanswered. What we do have was sent to Shifra Nussbaum Mentel by Mrs. Palwas, the virtuous wife of Dr. Pavlas Palwas." Fleisher explains that Tarnowski wanted the city for reasons of status (this was the feudal period) and as a source of income. As he was a member of the elite he received the license (on 28 May 1593) with relative ease. Fleisher also states that the city received the right to establish wine warehouses. This was of major importance as trade in goods was only allowed in cities where there were warehouses, and Tarnobrzeg/Dzikov (T/D) sat on the main road to Hungary, which was famous for its wines.
CAPTION p. 23 - aerial photo of the city. In the center "Main Street", the "small market" and the "big market". The first two-story building was the post office. The synagogue can also be seen on the west.
From pages 25 - 26 Fleisher analyzes the omissions and commissions in the Polish material to demonstate the latent anti-semitism with which they were imbued.
Quotes from a chapter "Notes on the Jewish Presence in Tarnobrzeg" in a book by historian Michael Marczuk.
Jews began settling in Tarnobrzeg immediately with its founding. "David Schlissel informs me" writes Fleisher,"that in the archives of Tarnowski's palace there is a document which records that the first Jew arrived in Dzikow in 1556, and his name was Menashe Garfinkle."
Fleisher then calls into question the historian who reports that the following Jews were involved in the wine trade with Hungary:
1741 - two gabbais from the synagogue - Wolf and Pinchas Lefkowitz
1778 - Wolf and Simple
1672 - Yosef and Zelig Lefkowitz (but they were not from T/D, but from Zinagrod(?))
During 1778 - 79, Wolf and Simple Lefkowitz collected payment for livestock entering the market.
1773 - Shmuel Zalmanowitz was the collector of tax on Kosher meat.
1869 -70 - Moshe Hauser - held the Count's liquor license. (He was also the owner of the "Michover(?) village. Others who were involved in the liquor trade: Lazer Wohl, and later Leib Eckstein, Raphael Bloch and David Engleberg.
1790 - T/D close to 350 Jews. (In Baranow there were about 300).
1800 - T/D 180 families/491 individuals. (Baranow was 94 families/451 individuals.
Before WW I - about 700 Jewish families in T/D
Statistical yearbook/1910 - 359 Jewish households, 2547 individuals.
P. 29 - Jews who purchased estates from Polish landowners included: Hauser, Yitzhak Potok and Koppel Beigelman.
a. A translation of one version of this story, by Regina Spirn ,is found on the T/D website.
b. As this event is intimately linked with the genealogy of the Schlussel family, and there is more than one verion of it (some of which are reviewd in this chapter, and one which I received as a transcript typed by a grandson of Yisroel Matus Schlissel when I first arrived in Israel) a full translation and commentary will be forthcoming at a later date.
Caption P. 30 - The Palace of Count Tarnowski before the fire (of 1929)
Caption P. 31 - Count Zadzislow Tarnowski on his horse
T/D was a typical Jewish/Galician town. The center included the Big Market and the Small Market, and two or three main streets, from which some smaller streets branched off, and from them even smaller alleyways/paths where many of the Jews lived.
(P.35) Only one Jewish family lived on the outskirts of the city in the direction of the railway station - Rav Haim Blitzer (who was short and once had a windmill). It was a well-respected family, even by the gentiles, and most amazingly, by the ruffians among the gentiles.
While this chapter does not contain additional genealogical info, it does have fairly nice descriptions of day-to-day life which will be translated at a later stage.
P. 37 Rav Moshe Hauser had a small wall built along the southern border of the old cemetery. The old cemetery has already been out of use for an estimated 150 - 200 years and there were almost no tombstomes left intact.
Yehoshua Meir Klein, the best teacher in town, lived in a house where one of the windows overlooked the old cemetery. Tisha ba'av was the only day of the year the cemetery gates were open, and kids would come looking for tombstones with the oldest inscription. And each year they would end up around one grave which was purportedly of the Holy Ones.
Unfortunately, T/D did not maintain a community record, and neither did the synagogue have a plaque/cornerstone with a date. According to documents in the Roman Catholic archives in Presmyshil. the Bet Knesset (synagogue) was buit in 1718 with a loan from the Catholic Parish of Micosin. Signing on behalf of the Jewish Committee:
Leib Aronowitz, Leib Abramowitz, Moshe Berkowitz, Yosef Zindrowich.
In 1741 an additional loan was made, and the signees were Pinchas Lefkowitz and Lev Lefkowtiz.
CAPTION p. 38 - The synagogue in its destruction - serving as a grain storage. In the eastern wall an opening was made. Picture from 1964.
CAPTION P. 39 - The synagogue - from the entrance side and the eastern side.
The Synagogue wasn't usually full, except on the holidays, The Bet Midrash (the Study Hall) was full non-stop, day and night.
Speaking of the celebration of civil holidays in the synagogue Fleisher writes: Rav Mendeli (Mendel Schlussel) was quite handsome, and with a representative personality, made his speech in Polish. Even though he did not speak the language well he rehearsed it to ensure that he would deliver it smoothly,. The cantor knew Polish even less, and hummed the national anthem
P. 40 - facsimile of an article from the Polish press reporting that the synagogue, "which is currently used as a grain storage will be converted into a municpal and regional library."
P. 41 - Talks about the teacher Rav Israel Meyers, whose family owned the "galantria"(?), which allowed him time to teach.
He was the son-in-law of the Rabbinic judge Israel Mayer Kirschenbaum.
The regulars at Torah study: Pinnea Kirschenbaum, Mendel Gertner, Moshe Ayrton, Meir Forstenschel
P. 41, col 2 - Other lessons were led by a great teacher: Eliezer Mordechai (Yonhas) Tannenbaum. When he stopped teaching, no single person took his place, but there was a rotation, which included (among others) Lipa Fraizer and Kalman Hauser.
Someone held in great esteem: Elimelech Nussbaum. (his son was Pinchas)he was very smart and diligent in his studies.
Other noted individuals
Rav. Avraham Elia Kastenbaum - who did his studying standing up and could stand for hours
Rav Shmuel Langenbaum (Eigner), - one of the founders of the Talmud Torah and very active in political affairs. He had a tavern in the middle of the market. A relatively detailed biography is provided.
Yet others include:
Nachum Zuckerbrod, Yoseph Shalom Kasten, Moshe Niches Steininger (his entire life revolved around the Bet Midrash), Meir Feristenshel (son-in-law of Naftali Issac), Kalman Pfeffer, Yaakov Tzangan,.
P. 44 There were also some more well-to-do members of the community who would come periodically: brothers Yosela and Aharon Nussbaum, Moshe Monheit (the big lover of Zion), Laibush Zaidman (son-in-law of Barish Laufer). Ephraim Melamud (Rubin Stein).
There were some who looked after the books: Lipa Frazier, Yeshia Kirschenbaum (son of Pinnea), Abraham Levine (son of the ritual slaughterer.Moshe) and Yehoshya Adelman (son of David Beckover).
The Rulkis - name of the neighborhood taken from the Polish word for field. One main street and many alleyways, where most of the poor lived. The only time the Rulkis sprang to life was as Passover approached.
2 Jewish whitewashers: Laibush Salzman, the other who is not named.
Residents of the Rulkis included:
Yitzhak Hirsch Shohat
Mordechai Youst (son of Shumel Shochat)
Mordechai Shulman - who managed a shoe sewing workshop
CAPTION P. 50 - The city's gymnasia (High school). Catholic church in the background.
Introduction to Religious Leaders in Tarnobrzeg
Rabbis and Admorim* of Dzikow
(*Admor - acronym for "our exalted Master, Teacher and Rabbi")
Page 59 - 109 are somewhat wordy accounts of 6 generations of Horowitz rabbis. The first Rabbi described in great detail is Rav Naphtali Zvi Howorwitz, known as the Ropitscher Rabbi. The other descriptions are of his descendants who served as the Rabbi's of T/D from +/- 1820/30 until World War II. The chapters contains a great amount of genealogical detail of the Horowitz Dynasty which is almost certainly available from other sources, and will not be described here.
Among the most interesting phenomena is how the sons of Rabbi Eliezer Horowitz became the Rabbis of some of the surrounding towns, and their sons did the same. I did not do a count, but there may have been periods when there were as many as 12 or more Rabbi Horowitzes serving as the "chief rabbi" of towns scattered through the
Some general comments: Rav Naftali, the father of the Dzikov dynasty, was among the early promoters of Hassidism, which in some measure was a rebellion against a stiff and non-responsive Rabbinical establishment of the time.
Interesting, the next wave of ideology that repeated the process of struggling against the establishment was Zionism, which began to ferment in T/D at about the turn of the 20th century, with activities apparently peaking in the post WW I years.
Editor Yaakov Fleisher bases his account of the entry of the Horowitz Dynasty into T/D to reports he received from Aharon Ofen, whose descendants were close confidants of the Horowitzs. And in this account, the head of the Jewish community at the time of the recruitment of Rav Eliezer Horowitz was Shimon Reich (and not Zecil Schlussel as in the account by David Schlussel which follows.)
Following are extracts with non-Horowitz genealogical significance:
Rav Meir Horowitzs 3rd son was Yehiel. When he would come to visit in T/D he was hosted by Haim Yechiel Lichtman.
Another member of the family would be hosted by Moti Youst, son of Shmuel Shohat.
P. 86 - Almost until WWII there were elders in the town who remembered Rav Eliezer (the first of the Horowitz dynasty). They included Laibush Eckstein, Shmuel Shohat, Nahum Zukerbrod.
Many more remembered his son Meir. These included: Yermia Harr and Aharon Koren.
P. 90 Aharon David Penikal
P. 92 - One of the Horowitz books was published by Ephraim Nussbaum of Canada, son of Baruch and Gendel Nussbaum.
P. 95 - Talking about the impending WWI with Meir Eckstein, son of Matus Eckstein.
Caption: P. 97 Rav Alter Horowitz, as a young man
Caption P. 98 - meeting of the Admorim (mega-Rabbis) in Carlsberg:
In the middle, Rav Yehoshua Horowitz, on the right his son Alter and on the left Rav Israel Freidman from Czerktov.
Caption P. 100 - Rav Alter in the middle, and the Hassid Shmuel Eder on his right.
After WW I Rav Alter moved to Tarnow and Shimon Hertz filled most of his Rabbinic functions.
P 102 - When Agudat Yirael received certificates to make aliya they went to the village of the well-known Tarnobrzeg Hasid Kopel Beigeleizen.
Caption" P. 101 from the right: Meir Ofen, the Rav's right hand mand, Rabbi Alter and his son Haim Menachem. The other figures are Rabbis from other towns. The picture was provided by Mendel Taufer who found it when he returned to T/D from Russia following WW II.
Caption P. 104 - Rav Alter, and on P. 105 with his son Mendel.
The purchase of the Rabbinate in Dzikow - About 130 years ago (+/- 1830s) almost all Rabbis were residents of the town where they presided. When a move was begun to "purchase the Ravbbinate in Dzikow for Eliezer, the son of the Ropitscher Rabbi, from the incumbent, who was an oppenent of Hasidism, it did not go easily. Here is the story as it was heard from our fathers and the elders of town.
The incumbent Rabbi of Dzikow was Rav Eliahu Spiegel. He was rather old and weak, and did not have a son to fill his place, the heads of the community decided to recruit a younger Rabbi, on the condition that the right would be purchased. Because there were many Hasidim of the Robitscher Rabbi in Dzikow it was decided to bring his first son, Rav Eliezer. In spite of his age and infirmity, at the outset Rav Eliahu was adamantly opposed to the idea. The Head of the community at the time was my great (or perhaps great great grandfather Alexander Zecil Schlussel (it is interesting to not something quite extraordinary - the last head of the Jewish community at the time of the expulsion by the Nazis - Rav Menachem Mendel Schlussel - was the great grandson of the first.) And so it was when Rav Eliezer came, along with the head of the community, to Rav Eliyahu the first time, the found him busy in the morning studying Gemara, as was his holy way. After greetings, Rav Eliyahu asked: Rav Eliezer, do you know the meaning of the acronym formed by the letters of gemara? And answered in Yiddish "Good morning Rav Eli,"
It was only after lobbying by the wealthy Hassidim of Dzikov that an agreement was reached to turn the Rabbinate over to Rav Eliezer, with Rav Eliyahu to receive a stipend of 4 shanan (money unit of the time) a week for the rest of his life, and the concession to sell salt in the town.
B. The first activities of Rav Eliezer - Ridding the town of "shedim (ghosts) and clowns" There were widespread rumors in town about "evil spirits", whose location was known, and which came out after midnite and frightened the residents. People therefore avioided going to these areas. And then happened a terrible event shortly after the new Rabbi came to town: At that time a poor sandler lived in one of the alleyways (in a house that was later occupied by Rav. Avraham Reich), known as Avraham Avinu, the well-known tailor in town
Here the author inserts an aside with a cute observation by Itche Silber. There are three things in our town which are exactly the opposite of what they are called. The first teacher of Hebrew in the Zionist school of Tarnobrzeg was Hochman, which in Yiddish "tall" was very short; a woman whose name was Idel (meaning delicate) was anything but, and the third, Avraham Reich, the meaning of which is rich, is very poor.
To get back to the sandlers house. Your translator will make a long story short. The sandler used to keep pieces of leather on his window shutters to cure them. During the night the winds would blow them around. Due to their color and shape they looked like profiles of beings. One night, when he fell asleep at his worktable the sandler was half awakened by the noise they made while flapping around. He was a brave man, he took a knife, and cut the spirits to pieces. He fell soundly asleep and when he woke up in the morning and saw what he had done. He went to tell the Rabbi. The Rabbi being no fool, and knowing that the "shedim" were gone, asked the members of his congreation to come and pray and turn around one of the municipal buildings seven times. Of course that night there were no spirits and the Rabbi received great credit.
The other story is of a relatively prominent widow who asks the Rabbi to make a match. He suggests Shimon Friedman from a nearby town. All the reports about his scholarship and personality are wonderful, but the reports about his health are very discouraging. The widow reports to the Rabbi, who tells her "Don't worry, his Torah study will be his shield and he will live to at least 75 years old." The widow agreed. Need I add the conclusion?
D. Rav Meir from Dzikow -
Stories about Rav Meir of Dzikow - "The stories that I am about to relate were told to me by my father of blessed memory, and relate to things that happened not with strangers, but with us, within my own family. The people of our towm and my acquaintances know that I am not a Hasid, but I cannot escape the fact that something about the Rabbis indicates their relationship with the Creator. They are not just ordinary Jews, but touched by higher powers/"
Rabbi Meir of Dzikow, the author of the book "Omri Noam" was the son-in-law of Rabbi Haim of Sanz. His (Rabbi Meir's) name went before him, and Hassidim from half of Galicia came to him for blessings and advice. And here is what my father Yehuda z'al, related to me,
In the year "tracav" my father married my mother, Maret Tova, may she rest in peace, She was from a good home, but without (financial) means, and also my father was not among the rich, Following the wedding he went to Rabbi Meir with a request, that the Rabbi would pray that HaShem bless him with a livelihood. The Rabbi thought for a moment, and said to my father in these words: "You know what? Trade in honey." My father didn't hestitate for a moment, and went to a fair in the nearby town of Majdan. While en route - so tells father - suddenly I see a gentile come out of his house and shout: "Zushlik (my father was known in the whole area by the name Zushlik because his father was named Zecil) ‘Perhaps you'll buy some honey?" " I bought the honey from the gentile and made a lot of money, and went on to become a trader of honey known in the entire region"
Another story that my father told: "A very strange thing once happened to me. I went to the weekly fair in Majdan that was held every Monday. While it was a small town it had a very big fair and farmers and merchants from the entire region came. Most of the trade was in horses and cattle, and the trade in wooden tools was also lively. I went with my father. He would buy wooden tools and then sell them in Dzikow at a good profit. On the way my father put his hand in his pocket and "Woe unto me". His money was gone. All that he had - 134 Reinish (money unit) was gone. In those times that was a small fortune. What to do? No money to go to the fair. On the way home he stopped at Rav Meir and told his story to him. The Rabbi said to him: "Yudel, don't cry. Listen to my advice. Go to the priest in town - he's my friend - and tell him in my name, because indeed we are friends, and tell him I sent you, becauce he can help you, and tell him everything." This was in winter, just hen many gentiles come to their priests for Confession. After the priest heard my father's story he told him to come back Sunday evening. What choice did he have? He returned home in sorrow and anquish, because all the week he would be without money and without commerce. He waited the entire week for the miracle that had to happen, "I came" my father continued his interesting story, "on Sunday evening. The priest approached me with my wallet and the money and said: "You have luck. When you left me a woman came to me and said he found a wallet with money, and I told him to bring it to me without haste, because if he didn't a tragedy might happen. Naturally she brought it immediately." The priest concluded: "Take the money and give my greetings to your Rabbi. And you, next time be more careful, because one cannot depend on miracles (an axiom he said in Hebrew).
Moshe Arishes, the bagel baker, was old, but healthy, and he stood in for Rabbi Meir as father of the groom when Meir's son married the daughter of the Sanzer Rabbi.
P. 125 - Leibush Hanes Schlussel, Zecil Hanes. Yehoshua Nussbaum
P. 126 - Israel Meyer Kirschenbaum - father of Pinnea
The Teacher who Instructs the Elders
P. 127 - Zeev Avigdor Fink - son-in-law of Yitzahk Bezalel Schlussel
The Rabbinic Judge Shimon Hertz - According to his birth certificate Rav Hertz was born in 1850.In 1890 he moved to Dzikow and became a teacher until 1929, when he made aliya to Jerusalem, where he passed away in 1935. Rav Hertz's children - sons Shalom and Kalman, and daughter Chaya (Horev). Chaya was very active in the Tarnobrzeg in Israel Association.
P. 128 - caption: Rav. Shimon Hertz
Caption 129: Rav Kalman Hertz (son of Shimon Hertz)
P. 129 (bottom) - Yossef Sheffel - the last teacher
Discussions about Rabbis, and towards the end of his grandfather's life, about Zionism.
Laibush Eckstein - when author Fleisher knew him he was an old man, and hardly spoke. Fleischer comments it is hard to believe that when he was younger he was head of the community. He had a brother Motish in Rzeszow.
P. 135 Yehoshua Esset (or Asset or Est) - an independent Poland, with 3 million Jews, was established after WW I. Following the Balfour declaration, the divide between religious Judaism and the Zionist movement was greater than ever. Esset was educated, fluent in Polish, and was responsible for registering the births of Jewish residents. He headed the Rabbi's List in local elections a number of times. Yehoshua Esset's son was Yosef, and Yosef had three sons, Abraham, and Moshe and Naftali who perished in the Holocaust.
His sons-in-law were
Meir Licht (of blessed memory), a grain trader, whose sons Leibv and Benjamin were victims in the Holocaust.
Motel Monheit - an ardent Zionist, an excellent speaker who aroused crowds. He was son of Hanani Monheit and his wife, both of whom were murdered (by Russian soldiers?) in T/D shortly after WWI.
Mendel Schlussel - was a kerosene dealer, also had a gas station in the market, Yosef Farbman was expected to be the head of the community, but didn't want the position. Schlussel was an easy going consensus builder. He had a son Nahum who made aliya to Haifa in 1930's. The meetings of the community leadership were held in the house of Shammai Schlussel.
Avraham Lipshitz was secretary of the community at this time (just prior to WWII)
In local elections, the "Rav's List" was headed by Mendel Schlussel, Barish Laufer, Yosef Farberman, with Pinnea Kirschenbaum, Shalom Koren and Shmuel Langenbaum.
The Zionis List: Velvel Schlussel, Dr. Zimbeller, and Aharon Eleazr Tannenbaum.
The Worker's list: Herschel Weingel
When the Nazi's invaded T/D they took Mendel Schlussel hostage, but released him when the Jews were deported (about 2 weeks later). He found temporary refuge in a nearby village, but in the end he and his entire family were victims of the Nazi killing machine.
The author has many wonderful things to say about him. Until WWI he was quite well-to-do, and was involved in the distribution? of liquor in partnership (or under license) with/to Count Tarnowski. After the war things changed, but Pinnea always knew how to roll with the punches. No genealogical information, but it says he came from a well-to-do family
Rav Yermia Haar and Rav Chaim Laufer - the men who founded and managed the community welfare fund. Many, many wonderful things are said about Y.Haar, He was an activist in Aguda Yisroel, He did a lot of ombudsmanship, writing letters in German and Polish for the people of the town, It appears that Rav Shmuel Steinhart was a close family member (but no details provided.) No other genealogical info.
Rav Laufer had sons in Germany, and now in Israel (now meaning late 1960's, earl 70s.) and they supported him handsomely.
In short, Haar was an activist and he wanted to set up the welfare fund, but was relatively old, so looked for a younger man to deal with its day-to-day affairs and Hauser understood it must be him. The made a strange couple but it worked. The accounts of the fund were managed by Avraham Esset, the son of Yusela Esset,
The author notes that Haim Laufer's brother, Rav Netta Fortgang, was the author's mother's (Brucha Fleisher) brother-in-law. He had a daughter Hanna.
Describes a very pleasant and well-liked fellow who was on the opposite sides of the pole from the Rabbi's slate in local elections.
Unlike other leaders of the "working class" who were (mostly) fat political demagogues, Weingil was a shoemaker, he had a workshop where he and his sons worked diligently to provide a livelihood for the family. The descriptive material paints a picture of a wise fellow who was as much an ombudsman as a leader. He was an opponent of the Haredim, was on the (city) council, and was a vocal and fiery oppositionist.
He spent the war years in Siberia, and after the was he and his family made aliya to Kiryat Haim. Sadly a few weeks later he died of a heart attack.
P. 142 Netta Weingil - son of Herschel. Didn't work in the shoe shop. He had talents in accounting and math, and learned these subjects in the Polish state school. But for a Jew it was impossible to get a job in these fields, and he ended up getting a position as a teacher of religion in the same school where he had learned, As noted, after the war the family made aliya, and Netta became an orthodox Jew.
Even though he was quite old, we had hoped/expected that Rav Shalom Koren would be with us on the publication of the Yizkor Book, but sorrily that was not the case. Shalom was among the leadership of the community for many, many years. He was a Hasid, and was very close to the last 2 Dzikov rabbis.
His father, Rav Aharon, and his great-grandfather ("sabo hagadol") RavSimcha Tovia Eder, was the "baal tfilah" (something like prayer leader) for the first Horowitz Rabbi, and his uncle Shmuel Eder were among the most dedicated in the court of Dzikow Hassidism. But as noted, he was not wrapped up in his Hasdism, but was very, very active in public affairs, His wife was Sarala. (My guess his her maiden name was Eder). He was involved as a "forest agent" for the Nobles. (I take agent meaning involved in buying and selling timber" Because he traveled a lot, and read the different newspapers, he was viewed as a source of what was happening in the "big world". A few months before WWII broke out there was an event in Tarnow, and when asked about it Koren said something like: "Listen, and listen well. Those of you who are young and able should get out of here and go as fast and far as you can." He directed this message especially to Moshe Zveiman, the son of Yehoshua Zviman, the grandson of Rav Haim Yechiel Lichtman. Unfortunately, Moshe did not act fast enough, was caught up in, and was a victim of, the Holocaust.
Towards bottom of column 2 on 174 it talks about he great talents in prayer, and then notes he inherited them from his great grandfather Simcha Tovia Eder.
Shalom's only son, Menashe, was part of the illegal immigration to Palestine, and took part in the War of Independence. Shalom's wife was Rachel)
Describes his personality in great detail, and his skills (and non-skills) as a cantor in great detail. His sons: Haim and Pessach (live/d in Israel) Rav Avraham Schlussel would sometimes lead the chorus),
Rav Eli - Jack of all religious activities, and master of them all. There wasn't a religious ceremony - brit, marriage or burial, where Rav Eli Shemesh ((Shemesh is a position in the synangogue organization) didn't play a central role, and the role of others who might not have shown up. He also filled a multitude of functions in the daily, Shabbat and Holiday prayer services. He was known as Eli Shemesh, and if there was a shemesh before him hardly anyone remembers. And if he had a family name, no one seems to know that.
Rav Moshe Shemesh - the caretaker of the Bet Midrash
He was born in Raishnov, near Majdan. He was orphaned at age 2. At age 15 his grandfather (or great grandfather) Velvel Last, brought him to Tarmobrzeg. The Lasts had a tradition as caretakers going back to when there were only 30 Jewish families in town, Prior to WW II 1000 men would pray in the Bet Midrash on Shabbat. Moshe suffered in Siberia during the war, but made aliya to Petach Tikva afterwards.
The history of our city revolves around two revolutionary ideologies: Hassidism and Zionism. A young generation grabbed on to Hassidism no matter what forces - family or the Rabbinical establishment - tried to stop them. From the second half of the 1800's Hassidim - the Horowitz chain and its functionaries - set the tone in Dzikow. Those who weren't comfortable in such an atmosphere left for other Rabbinic courts were the exception rather that the rule. And then, what might be inevitable in movements of this kind, when it is established, its energies begen to focus on maintaining the status quo, and it forgets its own innovative roots.
The Zionist movement begin to find adherents in Dzikow towards the turn of the 20th century, and by the time of WW I was a full fledged factor in the towns social ambience. Even though even the most ardent Zionists thought the fullfilment of their dream might be far off, the needed to clutch at something which was a source of hope. Clearly the Haddic leaders were opposed to it even though they professed love for Israel/Zion.
Shallar also comments on the economic ramifications of pre-war anti-semitism. Jews were "locked out" of great portions of economic life. The result was struggling for a meagre existence as a peddler, tailor, or barel able to exist merchant. Hence the dream of potential in Eretz israel took hold. If it were possible, Shallar writes, that most Dzikowites - Hassid or Zionist - would have made aliya if only the English (who had the Mandate for Palestine) would have allowed it.
The author asks: How would things have been different if the Hassidim had embraced, and not battled with Zionism. Then the building of Israel would have had a stronger religious component, Instead it (Hassidism) left "the playing field" primarily to the secular movements.†
Until WW I the activities of the Zionists were "club" orientied - libraries, sports, drama, holiday celebrations, etc. The fourth and fifth waves of aliya (1924/25, and in the 30s) led to organizational strengthening of the Zionists, and to a greater impact on the ambience of Dzikow.
The Origins of Zionism in Our City - by David Schlissel - Even before Herzl, Dr. Zaltz of Tarnow preached the idea of "return to Zion". Towards this end an organization called "Kadima" (Move Ahead) was established in our town in 1880. Shimon Borstein (or Burstyn) (son of Meir Borstein) was among the prime movers. He was a learned man and well-respected. Also active" Lazar Mordechai onas Tannenbaum. In 1894 Haim Engleberg attended the Zionist conference in Bucharest. He was killed by the Russians in World War !. His bother Hersch Melech Engleberg filled his shoes, until his passing in 1928.
In 1910 the first Hebrew school was established. The prime movers were Avraham Perlman and Leibush Glatt. Menachem Hochman was the first teacher. He was a 19 year old Hasid from east Galicia, He married the daughter of the ritual slaughterer Israel Eder.
The first president of te Karen Hayesdod was Shmuel Youst, who was also a ritual slaughter. In 1922 Dr Freizman arroved from Lvov and he assumed the leadership of Zionist activities after the passing of Hersch Engleberg.
In 1924 lawyer Moshe Zimbeller and Dr. Zechariah Radner moved to Dzikov. Natan Griner, a pharmacist, arrived in 1932 (from Pesmiszl)
Yona Roizen was the first to move to Palestin after WW I - this was in 1924, and it happened only after the community raised money to cover his expenses.
In 1925 David oust made aliya, worked in a carpentry shop for a year, returned to Dzikow, but a short time later returned to Erezt Yisroel for good.
In 1927 Zalak Teicher made aliya. In order to base his finances, while still in Poland, he organized a course in beekeeping, which took place in te fields of Fishel Koenigsberg. Zalka himself learned from books. Participants were Haim Shallar, Alter Braver, Zelig Flum, and David Schlissel, who made aliya in 1935.
The first "Zionist Youth Movement" was established in Dzikow in 192. It was affiliated with "Shomer HaTzair" (the Young Guards) In 1926 Mizrahi youth was established, first for males, later for females.
P. 156 Caption, top picture - The General Zionist Organization of Tarnobrzeg. Seated from the right: Zalkowitz, Dr. Zimbeller, Mrs. Zimbeller, unknown, Herschel Kanner Shlafter. Standing in the back on the left: Haim Shaller and David Schlissel.
P. 156 bottom picture: from the right - Aharon Nussbaum, David Schlissel, Motel Shiller,
The "Machenaim Group" - Under the influence of "Kadima" the first Dzikowers made aliya in 1900. They were all from one family. Menchem (Mendik) Thurschwell, his son Eliezer, and his son-in-law, Rav Yeshia Wiezin, and settled in the "Galician' moshav, Machnaim. The money the had left after their traveling expenses they invested in potatoes for seed. They did this without any knowledge of agriculture in general, and certainly with none about agriculture in the particular conditions of the Galilee. They fared very poorly and turned over their parcel to the great benefactor, Baron de Rothschild. The immediate future wasn't better, and they were forced to return to Dzikow. But this did not diminsh at all their love and enthusiasm for Zion.
Also during the first world war the Zionist activities in our city continued. During the years 1916-18, having returned to the city from which we had fled in the heat of the Russian conquest of Galicia, there was among the activist Hersch Melech Engelberg, Herschel Kaner, Wolf Schlussel, Laibush Glott, Moshe Hauser and others. There were people who were from the upper strata and were educated, deeply rooted in traditional Judaism of the time, and had influence in town. We, the younger Zionist activists, were helped by them. The first three people that I mentioned above also financed a good deal of our activities. Zionism was the guiding force in the life of Hersch Melech Engelberg. We the young ones, both the males and the females, called him "Uncle", and his wife the Aunt. Both Herschel Kanner and Wolf Schlussel were involved in Zionist politics of the region. Herschel Kanner was well versed in the Polish culture, was well versed and able to express himself well in that language, and was well-respected by the Polish intelligentsia in the town. Wolf Schlussel was a more popular type and more sociable. We had in our town a local committee of the Jewish National Fund, which was of course a branch of the main one in Vienna. I remember the little blue boxes. We went to Sara Lustig, and found that she had two "tzedakah" boxes. The one for the Zionists was full, while the one for the Hassidim was empty. And she got hell for it. So she told her accusers that probably the Zionists had emptied the Hassidic box into theirs…When the news of the Balfour declaration reached our town it was the cause of great joy, even the Hassidim shared in the Zionist's joy. In 1918 there was in our town a Torah Study Club led by our friend Chaim Gold (son of Elezar Melech He was the "smart one" fluent in classical German, in culture and literature. For all intents and purposes he looked like a typical Hassid, but we knew that he was a dedicated Zionist. The lessons took place in a big hall of the Bet Knesset, and were attended by all the young ones from the Bet Midrash who had an affinity for Zionism - Moshe Monheit, Meir Zilber, Nissan Zukerbrut, Aharon Nussbaum, Barish Landau, David Schlussel and myself. We also had a minyan there on Sabbath and holidays, and additional fellows took part - Chaim Shaller, Ben-Zion Schlussel, Fishel Koenigsberg, Alter Braver, Zalman Citrin, and Yeshai Kleinman.
The Tikvah club met in a room in the house of Hersch Melech Engelberg, who gave it to us not for vanity, but because he was interested in our progress. Chaim Shaller, who was the Chairman of the JNF, also guided some of our activities. The young women who were involved in Zionist activity included Leah Kirschenbaum,
Hansi Farbman, Beila Monehit, Hansi Harringpas and others.
Picture on page 158: Activists in the Zionist Union in our city: seated from the right: Hershel Kanner, Dr. Tzimbeller, the guest Hofstadter from Krakow, Zelkowitz, Haim Shaller, David Schlissel, Meir Schlissel. Among the standing: Yosef Harringpas, Leibush Weisenfeld, Aharon Nussbaum.
Caption: Picture P. 159 - A group of the young general Zionists. Freom the right:H, Kornblit, Morganlander, L Weisenfeld, Harringpas, Tirschwell, S. Kanner, Shiffman, Lerner, Zilber, N.Hauser, H. Teitel, Sarah Zilber, Leibtcha ______, Shifra Zvyman, Yehousha Zilber, Zelda Warshavsky, Tuvia Zangan
The Aguda Yisrael movement in Galicia wasn't very strong. It had a lot of opponents among the leading Rabbis. But perhaps somewhat strangely, Rabbi Horowitz in Dzikow was for it. One of the things they did was to begin printing a newspaper (in Tarnow) for Agudat Yisroal in Yiddish.with a name close to the Yiddish Telegraph There was a long period when hardly anyone read it, but at some point its readership started to grow and it reached a decent circulation among the Hassidic population.
There is a recounting of the difficulting of orgranizing speeched by the Aguda. Although there were police on hand there were a lot of disturbancesby opposing factions, and they never did have a successful rally.
Not to be outdone, the Aguda supporters were also very active when it came to disturbing events that the Zionists tried to organize in town.
1925 - 35?? Activits Itche Silber, Shmuel Eisner, Meir Fishtenfeld, Rav Naftali Issac, Avraham Kastenbaum, Mendel Gurtz, Yehoshua Esset, Pinnea Kirschenbaum,
Yehoshua Farberman, Shalom Koren.
It was established because too many girls were coming under the influence of the "free thinkers" and Zionists
Among the activities of Agudat Yisrael in Dzikow was the establishment of the Bet Yaakov School for Girls.This coincided with the beginning of schools throughout Poland and Tarnobrzeg was right in with this wave.. Among the active forces were Yermiyahu Haar, Yaakov Westreich and his son-in-law Itche Silber. There were, however, some who asked: "What do we need a school for? Don't we have Brucha? Meaning Brucha Fleisher, (the mother of Yizkor book editor Yaakov Fleisher) who taught them to read and write and what they needed to know about Yiddish.
But even the skeptics were soon convinced and it developed rapidly.
Some girls who learned in Bet Yaakov and who became respected teachers: Necha, the daughter Zanvil Garfinkle, (who married Israel Gutterman,) Sarah Blatt (the daughter of Rav Feibish Blatt) Shifra Yager, )the daughter of Simcha Yager), the sisters Esther and Sheva Schwartz, the daughters of Beryl Schwartz,
The Aguda also established a loan fund whose capital came from the more wealthy merchants and which was managed by Rav.Yosef Farberman, Mendel Schlussel was the Chairman with advisory board including Yehoshua Esset, Shmuel Eisner and Pinnea Kirschenbaum. The accounting was handled by a dynasty of "Essets". Also involved: Leibtche Kornblatt.. The money was actually kept in the house of Moshe Koren, (who was the father of Shalom Koren) which was across the street from the post office .
Caption: Girls of the Bet Yaakov School with teacher Sarah Blatt.
The chapter begins with philosophy and speculation by the author about why the Agudat Israel Youth organization developed well in Tarnobrzeg as compared to other places.
After WWI, when things began to return to normal the Zionist "free thinkers" began to attract an increasing number of religious people to its ranks.
Discourse about Hassidic - Zionist politics.
Profiles on page 163 of Abrahan Esset, on 164 Shimon David Kasten, Kalman Hauser, Lippa Fraizer. In the middle of the second column Mordechai Waxman, and at the bottom Mordechai Zuckerbrod.
Caption to picture on P. 163
Agudath Yisrael Youth in Tarnobrzeg.
Standing from the right: Shlomo Asig, Leib Licht, Yechiel Lerner, Avshal Esset, Abba Kornblit, Yeshia Kirschenbaum, Abraham Esset, Shlomo Farberman, Natan Zinbaum, Chaim Abramstock, Yaakov Fleisher, Wolf Yegia,
Second row. Aharon Esset, Yehoshua Yost, unknown, Rafael Hoffberger, Benyamin Licht, Israel Kastenbaum, unknown, Gettel Schwartz, unknown, Mendel Altman, unknown, Avigdor Blitzer, Moshe Esset.
The 3rd row (those that are sitting) Slomo Shifran, Pessach Miller, Zela Turschwell,unkown, Mordechai Waxman, Shimon David Kasten , Israel Meir Kirschenbaum, Mordechai Zuckerbrod, Simcha Vinemam, Moshe Zviman,
Sitting on the ground: Herschala Altberger, Chaim Gryzman, Moshe Aharon Elfed, Naftali Esset, Yankala Licht (holding the sign) Icha Altveger, Hanina Monheit.
The sole picture is Israel Meir Kirschenbaum.
Shaller says that he and some of his friends - Moshe and Naftali Vestreich, Yisrael Kaller, Yehoshua Getter, Tuvia Lipshitz and others.. - joined the Religious Guards
Caption P.167 - Mizrahi Youth (1933®
Standing from the right: Bercha Bergstein. Eleizer Monheim, Moshe Blatt, Itcha Hauser, Zosha Fraizer, Leibush Federbush, Itcha Meir Yost, Abba Hoenig, Yoel Monheit, Yosef Zuckerbrod, Drappler
Sitting: David Schlussel, Meir Perlmutter, David Weisler, Yaakov Gettar,
Yudel Book, Yechiel Koren, Leib Fliesher,. Chaim.Altberger.
Sitting in the front row: Herschel Altberger, Yeshia Turschwell, Pessach Kastenbaum, Pinchas Nussbaum, Yehoshua Guttwein, Aharon Monheit, Pinchas Yagar.
Holding the sign: Motel
Zviman, Itcha Gutvein.
Caption p. 168 A group that later became the Mizrahi women
From the right: Malka Altman, Shifra Zfiran, unknown, unknown, Gitel Blatt.
Sitting: Chaya Pilver, Idel Glatt, Keila Blitzer, Freida Book.
Holding the sign - the sisters Feiga and Esther Hoenig.
Caption. Bottom of p. 168 - Standing from the right. Zalman Springer, Matityahu Zangbott, Shlomo Boida, Sholmo Morganlander, Pinchas Nussbaum, Yudel Book Yitzhak Guttvein.
In the second row: Yeshoshua Getter, Shmuel Shaller, Yehoshua Warshovsky< Herschel Glazman.
Sitting: Fishel Zinman, Elimelech Spear, Koren, Moshe Glazman, Ephraim Brandman,
The author recalls the Zionist activists as being David Schlussel, Chaim Shaller, Meir Schlissel (the author's father), Fischel Koenigsberg, Herschel Kanner, who was a great orator.
Another sub-organization, called Bnei Zion: Haim Hendel, Ida Chaim, Sara Silber, Sara Hauser, the Weisenfeld sisters, Leib Weisenfeld, Shmalka Schlissle,Pessach Hazan, Moshe Goldblatt,
P. 174 - top picture: The children of the Zionists. On the right, the kindergarden tteacher, Hadassah Schlissel,
In the text we learn that some of the children who came to the Zionist school were:
The children of Spieglitz, Nussbaum, Gerten, Freidman (the agent of the beer)
Bottom picture - a group of Akiva Zionists, in the middle is David Weisler.
Picture at the bottom of p. 175 (The Beitar Organization of Tarnobrzeg-
From the right: Yehiel Koren, Sholmo Zwatzkanbaum, Motel Zimmerman, Shlomo Steinhardt, Nahum Schlissel, Bila Yost, Aharon Sapir, Arie Wexler, Zalta Yost, Kenrek, Shlomo Yost and Yosef Brod.
Sitting: Moshe Yost, Bella Weisenfeld, Pinchas Yeger, Mintzberg, Yaakov Getter, Schlissel.
Holding the sign: Haim Yitzhak Hakal.
(Translators comment: The caption and the contents of the are not synchromized. There are more people in the photo that names that appear in the caption.
Only the child holding the sign be identified with certainty.
"Who created in me a pride of our homeland and allowed me to hold my head high in our town of Dzikow?" It was the Zionist movement. Yoseph Zlinkofsky was the prime mover in our town.
Binah was the secretary of the Jewish society bank was approached by Zlinkofsky. Dr. Rodner, who was the manager of the bank, said to me "help him" and I will help you both, and Rodner even gave me a few days of vacation to do so. We went from house to house, and from school to school. I don't know where we got the energy then, but Akiva was on its feet. Not all the parents were happy that children were involved in an organization that wasn't religiously oriented, but others were proud. I must talk about Yoseph Brandman, whose daughter Amalia, was one of our leaders. They helped us every step of the way. We also had a supervisory board of parents, Dr. Fraisman, Dr. Zimbeller, Dr. Rodner, Natan Griner and others. One of the highlights of the year was the L'ag B'Omer nature trip Everyone went out dressed either nicely, or in Akiva uniforms.
She goes on to recount how wonderful the Akiva Movement was, instilling Zionist pride in about 120 of the young ones of Tarnobrzeg.
The staff of Bank Lodovi: From the right- Simcha Fensterstock,Binah Nussbaum (Bidner), Zalman Springer.
A bank run by Jews. Founded with a capital of 3,000 zloties that was divided into 300 shares of 10 zloties each.By 1934 the scope of its activites was on the order of 3/4 of a million zloties. The people who ran it were Dr. Rodner, Heschel Kanner. It was democratically run, there were elections every year but the above were re-elected every year because no one had any complaints. Also involved were Rav Herschel Weingeil, and later on Rav Aharon Elazar Tannenbaum. Other workers in the bank was Simcha Fensterstrock and Zalman Springer.
Caption/col 1p.178: The Enclave of the Shomer Ha Tzair in Tarnobrzeg
From the right: Yakel Zitenreich, Ita Warshavsky, Esther Zatzkenbaum (Chechkenbaum?), Shpirn, Esset, P. Nussbaum, Beygl, Velvel Waldman,
Second row: Mekler, Zeiden, S. Weisenfeld,(Nussbaum), Ephraim Klein
CaptionP178 Column 2: A group of young women of the Shomer HaTzair:
From the right: Shindel Nussbaum, Vahal Chechkenbaum, Frimka Nussbaum, Spirn, Eta Warshavsky, Hauser, Spirn, Zeiden, Esset, Makler.
The author moved to Israel in 1935, and even though her mother objected at the outset, she made peace with it later on. However, the author's entire family was exterminated in the Holocaust.
Caption, Page 179: Ruchamah Weisenfeld and her family, Masha Greenbaum and her family.
An article about her Zionist activities, and the price her family paid in World War II.
I have wonderful memories of Tarnobrzeg, or as it was called in Yiddish Dzikow, from both before and after World War I. It was known throughout Galicia by virtue of its rabbis etc.
The author was one of the young Zionists. The were active in educational and cultural activities.
The authors sister Hannah moved to Palestine in 1934, but at the outbreak of the war returned to Dzikov with her husband and child to see mother. While by virtue of her knowledge of the German language she was able to help many Jews, in the end her fate was like that of so many others. Her son Zvi was in Bergen-Belsen, but he was there just as the American forces conquered the region and the Nazis fled.
World War I "shook up the entire deck of cards" in Tarnobrzeg, and nothing was the same afterwards. One of the noticeable differences was that people began to look for different avenues of expression and were no longer content to be simply members of the court of the Rabbis.
Concerning the library it began its activities under the name "Living Language" with the goal of introducing and teaching Hebrew to the population of Tarnobrzeg. Apparently, even many of those who prayed in the synagogue, while they knew the prayers, didn't know the language. Over time it became a more lecture club, and over time, to great shock, even people without head covering began to arrive to deliver lectures. To some extent, over time the Library became more of a political organization. Among the people who were active in it: Nissan Farbman, Chaim David Teitel, Yaakov Weisenfeld, Alter Fortgang who later became head of the Dzikower Landeschaft in America.
An additional library was established in 1927/28, and the leaders of this were Shmuel Tirschwell, and Haim Hertzel, the son of the cantor. Its first location was in the Hauser's home. Later on it moved to Last's home, and after that to Eli Korin's that was near the popular school. The library was really successful and the ones that have to get the credit are Dr. Rodner, Moshe Goldblatt, Mattal Last (son of Moshe Shemesh) and Pessach Herzl., Dula Fleischer, Esther Hauser and Sella Sara Youst.
The Drama Club - the organizers were Chaim Hertzel, Sanya Krep, the Wiesenfeld sisters (Rachel and Leah) , and the director was Zeiden, a Jewish clerk from the courts, a somewhat unique character who had survived the Austrian administration. The owner of one of the halls that was suitable for the presentations was an anti-semite and the only one who was able to convince him to "let the show go on" was Nissek Engleberg who was known for his persuasiveness and smooth language.
Others who participated (in one way or another): Keila Knobbler, David Farbman, Abraham Asher, Moshele Hartman
HaRatzon (Determination) The Jewish Sports Club
The name reflected the ambience that accompanied the beginning or organized Jewish sports activities in Dzikow. Prior to HaRatzon there was not a ball to be had in all of town, and kids used to use a bladder that they got from the butcher and filled with air. Kalman Hauser is the one who gave the club its name.
Among the organizers of the group were Nissek Engelberg, Kalman Hauser, Issac Sapir, Mattel Schlussel, Avraham Scheinman, Wolf Hauser, Pessach Hertzl, David Farberman, Eli Fleisher, and Pincher(?).
The first who were able to attain shoes were Nissek Engelberg and Yisrael Moises, making everyone else jealous. Yechiel Wiesenfeld made his house available for meetings of the young people (that's before he moved to Krakow). The soccer players were the "stars" of the town, and all the young kids, including the Haredim and other orthodox streams…. Every alleyway, every street, every space was used, and any material, of any shape was used for the ball. Some of the stars of the later years were the brothers Zalman and Shammai Kinstlich, Dr. Max Fleisher, Yosef Kleinmintz,
The activites of HaRatzon continued up until the war.
The second group formed in town was Maccabi. The picture at the bottom of P. 182:
The Maccabi Soccer Club: From the right: Velvel Waldman, Yaakov Zeitenreich, Bujeau(?) Neiman, Shmerl Schlussel, Shmuel Koenigsberg, Avraham Zimmerman, Zalman Kintslich, Yosef Weingil, Stern, Tuvia Bregstein, Nissan Nussbaum, Brish Shanel.
Second row: Meyer Haringpas, Alter Kastenbaum, Ephraim Sapir, Shammai Kinstlich, Issac Schlussel, unknown, Yosef Kleinmintz.
The starting team (for Maccabi) in most instances was Avraham Zimmerman, the striker, Issac Sapir and Nissek Nussbaum, Tuvia Bergstein, Moochi Cahana and Viank Engleberg, defense, and Wallfish Broider, the goalie.
Caption: From the right - Weingil, Y. Weingil, A. Zimmerman, S. Schlissel, S. Spindel, Yosek Kleinmintz, A. Schlissel, N. Nussbaum, S. Kinstlich, Z. Kinstlich
Captions: P. 185 Dr. Chaim Shaller, and Bruchala Shaller
Caption: Dr. Avraham Freizman - he was a very dedicated and active Zionist. He was born in Tarnopol but came to Dzikow some time around WWI. He was in the town in October 1939 when about 3000 people were expelled by the Nazis.
P. 193 - Barish Laufer - a mover and shaker in town, among the community leaders. 9Picture is on P. 3760
P. 194 - Moshe Eliezer Karp - The author, David Youst, notes Karpf lived close to his uncle Eliezer Melech, and his uncle Shmuel. Moshe's wife Feigele was a seamstress. After Shabbath meal a group that included Eliezer "Yeshi Weitzman, Moti Youst, Karpf and others would gather in Shmuel's house and would recount stories of the great rabbis of the period.
P. 194 Rav Issac's son-in-law - probably few, if any, knew the real name of "Isaac Ayadim" was Eliezer Ziebel (although Zeibel might have been his wife's family name. By chance I studied in school with his daughters who were named Zeibel.) He was a teacher, but very, very poor, and most of the chapter describes his poverty and the consequences thereof. He had 4 daughters and a son of "old age". The daughters were Bracha, Dvora, Chave (the oldest) and Chaya Raizel. Chaya married an orphan who had moved to T/D and was the Rabbi's servant. \
From all the hundreds of people praying the one voice which was heard above all was that of David Adelman (or Eidelman) and there's a nice little story about him.
Also a nice story about Abracha Schlussel, who had a lovely voice, and led certain prayers.
It's important to point out that Dzikow was a very religious town, it was a Hassidic town, and an important part of Hassidism were the songs, and Dzikow was quite well-known for the songs and melodies that were "born" there.
A report on the Yom Kippur experience in Dzikow. Again, as Dzikow was not very different than Mea Shearim or Bnei Brak today, the entire town flowed into a special ambience that Fleischer describes in this chapter. But without reference to any specific individuals.
A nice little vignette about the final parting of the last head of the Jewish community, Menachem Mendel Schlussel, and Count Tarnowski, who were both being held hostage by the Nazis in the days following their conquest of Polant. When it becomes known that Schlussel is being released the Count thinks it is because the Russian Revolution was dominated by Jews, and hence the Head of the Community will find great sympathy there.
an article about the weekly market. The only names mentioned are Haim Milichkar (the dairy man) , and the owner of the tavern, Yoraham Nussbaum,
where all the pork sellers gathered.
Recounts the story of one Jew in Tarnobrzeg who was totally assimilated into the secular culture - Tony Rabin, who had a son named Donc. Donce spent all his time with Poles, and once in a card game he won all the money from the manager of one of Tarnowski's properties, and the fellow said to Donc: "You"ll see, I'm going to get my money back soon" and took out a gun and shot him. Because, like it or not, Donc was a Jew the shooter did not receive any meaningful punishment.
It begins with a description of the terrible and worsening conditions of the Jews in Poland before the outbreak of the war (WWII), enumerating some of the measures that were ruining them financially, and of course the threats that were coming from the direction of Hitler and the Nazis, which did not receive any attention by the Polish authorities. In spite of all that, when the Sabbath approached Jews moved into their own world, forgot the politics and put everything aside and dealt only with the Shabbat, its customs, affinities, and all the ritual related to it. On the Shabbat in question everything was normal. The singing of the hymns could be heard from here and there, and suddenly there was a commotion and we heard shouts of "There was a murder, there, there….." The victim was Rav Yisroel Kamilover (taken from the name of the village where he used to live), but whose family name was actually Noybiert. He was murdered, we ran to his place, and there we saw him sprawled on the floor in puddles of his blood. Rav Israel was a dealer in used metal, and he made a nice livelihood. He lived with his wife, his only son having emigrated to America. The questions that were in the air were "Who murdered him, and how did the murderer(s) get away without anybody seeing him/them? Even thought anti-Semitism was in the air, the murder really sent shock waves through the community. Even the senior officials came and demanded a quick and thorough investigation. Then someone did report that they saw the murderer running from the house in the direction of the railroad station and into the surrounding forest. The police commandeered a wagon with some horses and took off after him, and we, the youngsters, reports Fleischer, took off in the direction of the forest as well. We, however, were stopped on the edge. A little while later we heard some shots, and a few minutes later the police came out. We learned the first were warning shots fired in the air, but the killer didn't stop and put his hands in the air, but fired at the police. Luckily for them he missed, but they didn't, and shot and killed him. And what did Fleischer here people in the crowd which had assembled saying? "A pity that this young man lost his life because of a Jew". It was later discovered that the murderer wanted to get married and needed funds. He knew the Shabbat customs, and waited until the wife went out to bring the cholent from the baker, and then entered the house to commit a robbery, but was interrupted in the process by Rav Israel.
Motl used to make (and eventually sell) hand-rolled cigarettes in their house, which was illegal. Once the police came in while they were in the middle of their work. He was quick thinking and grabbed a pot full of potato peelings and ran out the door and of course the police were in quick pursuit after him. When he was sure that his family had had enough time to hide the contraband he stopped and allowed the police to find his pot of potato peelings. Motl (Mordechai)'s fathers name was Moshe
Dole was the author of a book (in Polish) about pre-WWII whose title when translated into English is "The Depths of the Abyss". Dole was a teacher in the state run gymnasium (high school) in Tarnobrzeg. He was in contact with people from all levels of Polish society, but particularly the intellectuals. He was sensitive to the ambience of anti-Semitism that was pervavise, including among the highest level of Polish officialdom, which of course found expression in the way the Jews were treated. This is all expounded upon in great detail in his book, a chapter which deals with our cit is excerpted here with his permission and authorization. The reader will undoubtedly be moved by what he has to say. Dole had a friend who was a high-ranking police official, who explained that the orders which came down to them were that when it came to complaints related to anti-semitism were: "don't look, don't listen, don't respond." So in effect the 3 million Jews in Poland were treated at outcasts. Dole reports how anti-semitism was fostered in the schools, where exam questions were phrased in such a way as to open themselves for anti-semetic answers, and those didn't give them failed. Dole's article continues to the top third of page 222, and contains moving descriptive material relating to the anti-semitism, up until and including the explusion by the Nazis in 1939. However, it does not contain names of individuals.
When the Nazi's rose to power in 1933, there was not widespread worry in Poland, and anti-semitisim was not yet in high gear. One of the reasons is that Poland's leader has his doubts about the "staying power" of the Nazis. When that leader died in 1935, anti-semitism moved up a notch. Again, to be clear, it was never absent in Poland, but now became more active. First in areas related to the economy and earning a livelihood. More and more people began to look for countries to emigrate to, but all doors were closed, and even to get to Palestine was close to impossible because the number of certificates that were available were but a drop in the ocean.
Caption, page 223: First row, from the right: Getzel Schwartz, Aron Shanel, unknown, David Spindel. Second row (from the right) unknown, Hausu (Yehoshua?) Hauser, unknown, Shlomo Boida, unknown, T. Bregstein, N. Nussbaum, The last: Noah Gottlieb
Fleischer then quotes portions of a letter that was written by his friend Avraham Levin that was written to his brother, who was in Palestine, a year and two months before the outbreak of the war. He talks about getting an apprenticeship in the bicycle repair shop of Kalman Pfeiffer. The article continues to quote the letter, whose overall tone is of thorough despair (at not having any options).
Caption P. 227: A group of boys from the study house, last generation before the Holocaust. From the right: Yehoshua Horowitz (son of Rav Horowitz), Tuvia Lipshitz, Yaakov Licht, Haim Greisman, Yosef Laufer.
P. 239 Caption: Compulsory Labor by those exempt from service in the Polish army. From the right: Yehoshua Youst (holding the reins) Shlomo Blitzer, Avigdor Blitzer, Avraham Levin.
P.240 Caption top (also Compulsory Labor by those exempt from service in the Polish army)- from the right - Shlomo Farbman, Yaakov Fleisher, Lipa Fraizer, Haim Averstock
P. 240 Bottom - second from the right - Asher Schlussel, son of Abraham Leibush Schlissel, sitting - A. Shiffman (called Jokover) Yosef Schlussel. Standing- Yaakov Fleisher, Yosef Steinmetz, unknown, Itcha Rosenbaum, Noah Gottleib, Zalman Silber, Shlomo Farbman, Lipa Fraizer, Haim Averstock.
P. 241 caption - Among the standing from the right: Meir Shanel, Shimshon Asig, Engelberg, Tuvia Bergstein, unknown. Sitting, on the far left, is Nissan Nussbaum.
Personalities and Gestalt
Before WW I there were rich people in Tarnobrzeg, but really rich people.who owned mansions that were on expansive estates, and farms and palaces, lands and forests. There were big traders. Some of them were known throughout Galicia. They were (mostly) Hassidim. Rav Shlomo Lamb and Moshe Hauser are two examples.
Shlomo David Koren - was very religious Hasid. Was quiet. Came to the Bet Midrash twice a day. Didn't really speak much to anyone. In his prime he owned thousands of hectares of land. He had sons Naftali Koren, who passed away before WWI, and a son-in-law Aharon Getter.
Kopel Beigeleisen - also ver religious, and also owned thousands of acres of land. No family info reported.
The brothers Haim and Elimelech Sapir - they owned and traded in forests in a big way. Haim didn't get involved in municipal affairs, but was known to criticize from behind the scenes. He also refused request to become a member of the council. No family details, except to say that he lost part of his family in the Holocaust, others live in Israel, and in other countries outside of Europe.
Picture 246: Photo Leibush Youst
Eliemelch Sapir - was very different. Not loud, but opinionated and involved in community affairs. A big supporter of Rabbi Alter. He had one son (no name given, nor is his fate reported on who learned a combination of secular and religious studies. Elimelech was murdered by the Nazis.
Shlomo Birkstein - had agricultural machinery agency. He represented the leading manufacturers and had virtually no competition in Dzikow. Fate unknowm,
Wolf Frivelig - was the brother-in-law of Shlomo Birkstein. Not among the rich of the town, although he did have a nice hat store. Very kind words about him. His son drowned in the Vistula. One of his sons-in-law was Yehiel Bernstein, son of Simcha Burstyn ( a Bet Midrash stalwart and gifted artist - a painter). The entire family perished in the Holocaust.
Laibush Youst (son of Shmuel) who was a ritual slaughterer and mohel for about 40 years. As a mohel he was quick and precise. His son-in-law was Moshe Levin. One of his sons, David, made aliya before the war and was one of the leaders of the Tarnobrzeg association in Israel. Youst died while at mineral springs, and only the daring of his son-in-law, Aharon Eliezer Tannenbaum, succeeded in getting his body back to Dzikow for burial.
Picture on 247 Moshe Shohat
Leibush Mendel Lautman - had a clothing and textile shop. He was head of the Hevra Kadisha (burial society) for many years, and was very close to the Dzikow rabbis.
The bakers were Barel Asher, Leibush Kornblitt, Abrahan Nitzan, but it was his wife Chaya Idel who was really the driving force, Haim Hoenig, and Arish Knobbler.
The tailors - This was the most widespread occupation in town. Abraham Leib Tischler and his brother Eliezer, Shabbtai Springer, and Yosef Kira.
The butchers - Israel and Noah Fleischer, Herschel Friedman, Moshe Chaim Fleisher, the son of Nathan Kopper.
From 1935/36 there was no more kosher slaughtering.
Page 254 The captions: Fishl Koenigsberg, Etala Lichtsman and part of his expansive family.
Getel Schwartz and the family of the Rav Berel Schwartz
The people who were active in Aguda Yisroel Youth: Shlomo Kirschenbaum, Avraham Esset, Israel Meir Kirschenbaum, Shimon David Kesten, Kalman Hauser, Mordechai Waxman, Mordechai Zukerbrod,
A superstar in his knowledge and understanding of the political intrigues of the time was a young Haredi Getzl Schwartz. whose father was Beryl Schwartz. He was the lone son. There were 4 daughters. Beryl didn't do much of anything but walk through the market with his friend Yona Monheit and criticize the leaders of all the parties. The one thing Beryl was successful with, through no doing of his own, were his children. Three of the 4 daughters were teachers in Bet Yaakov, two of them, Ester and Batsheva even finished the Bet Yaakov seminar in Krakow, which was conisdered an outstanding institution, You can ask how did the guy who didn't succeed at anything pay for them. The answer is they paid their own way from the sale of embroidery and needlework they did from their days in elementary school onwards.
The picture on P. 269 is Getzel Schwartz and Yaakov Fleisher.
And on P.270 the General School of Tarnobrzeg in 1939. On the right is Getzel Schwartz and on the left is Elizer Silber.The story from 267 - 270 is about a fellow who was a genius and loved to read and read and read, and understood everything and when to a special seminar in Warsaw to learn special methods for teaching (of Hassidim, something that was quite exceptional) He met his death at the hands of the Nazis. (story ends at bottom of P. 271.)
The Bet Midrash is where the boys started learning independently at the ago of 13. The first friend he recalls is Avraham Levine (photo p. 272), who went to work for his uncle Kalman Seffer selling and repairing bicycles and learned that profession. His brother was Shalom Levine (photo p. 273) who, following the explusion from Tranobzeg, was on the way to Bobov to try and obtain information when he was captured by the Nazis at Ulanow. Abraham Levine died in Tashkent from weakness, hunger and cold.
P. 274 - Lieb Mintzberg - His father was Sholmo Yehoshua Mintzberg.Shlomo Mintzberg was the son-in-law of Eli Droppler who had been the gabbai of some of the Horowitz Rabbis. Leib Mintzberg apparently lost his life during his efforts to move from German to Russian controlled territory.
Page 274, bottom column 1: Yehoshua Aidelman (or Eidelman) was the son of David Adelman. (Summarizer note - there is quite a bit of detail about Eidelman, If there are family members doing genealogy, they should contact me,)
He was the youngest in the class, but also the sharpest. It wasn't by chance that prior to the Bet Midrash he was in the advanced class of Rav. Ephraim Melamed. He was short, but very quick. His family was quite poor and he showed initiative in order to earn some money to cover at least his own needs. He studied at the seminar in Warshaw, and returned home about a year before WWII.
I don't know the specifics of the families demise. The parents had a married daughter in Lublin, they went to stay with her, and probably met their end there. From David Adelman's family only hix son Moshe, a "HaHam Gadol" survived. He moved to U.S, and was serving as a congregational Rabbi.
Column 2 on p.275: Avigdor Blitzer. He wasn't born in Dzikov, but moved from Kolboshov when he was about 16 years old after a fire destroyed all his parents possesions. His parents came to Dzikov because they had a married daughter there. Actually she was married to Rav. Avraham Schlussel, who was held in affection in town because of his beautiful.
singing in the Bet Knesset.)
There is descriptive material that would be of interest to descendants.
He had a knack for commerce and used to play a role in his fathers shop of leather and shoe, and every Wednesday would not be at lessons because he was at the market selling. He was not at all interested in the political debates (Zionism, local) that were swirling about him.
Pohto 276: Group from the Bet Midrash: From the right: Leib Mintzberg, Yehoshuala Adelman, Avraham Levine, Avigdor Blitzer, and Yaakov Yehoshua Fleisher.
From the day of the explusion by the Nazis all contact was lost with this family, What is known is that none of the family survived. May their blood be revenged.
P. 276 - Yechiel Lerner - was my mate in class of Rav Ephraim Rubinstein, Was a serious student who didn't give up until he understood what was being learned. We also learned together with Rav Shmuel Yakil, whose special traits would be of interest to descendants. .Yechiel's entire family perished in the Holocaust.
Avraham Abba Kornblitt - also contains descriptive material, His father was Rav Leibtche Kornblitt, who had a big bakery which supported his large family, He (the father) also gave generously to charity, and served as a gabbai of the Bet Knesset. The entire family: Victims in the Holocaust.
Baruch Kirschenbaum - was the son of Fivel Kirschenbaum, who died suddenly one day. Fivel was the first son of Rav Pinnea Kirschenbaum. Adequate student. Eventually ran the family leather store by himself.
Haim Averstrock - Father was Wolf Averstock, one of the important community members. Haim excelled at singing. Haim was one of the first to experience the brutalities of the Nazis, when he tried to escape to Baranow, but was caught and beaten unmercifully, and only by a miracle survived at that time. From the entire family, only a daughter, who made it to the U.S., survived.
Some others, who were not in our class, who I would like to recount, are
P. 277: Benyamin Licht - son of Rav Meir Licht, and grandson of Rav. Yehosualah Esset. Serious student, Helped his father in grain trade. He learned with an older fellow, Shimon David Kasten. After the explulsion from Tarnobrzeg family seemed to be divided between Lvov, Siberia and Belgium, Meir survived and made aliya to Israel where he died.
Yehoshua Youst - Son of Motti Youst, He learned together with Aharon (Alu) Monheit, son of Rav Yona Monheit. After the expulstion the Yousts reached a town called Kolomei and there were engaged in trade and Yehoshua would periodically arrive in Lvov. In Kolomei he married Manya Langer, the sister of Haiml Langer. The grandfather, Hershl Langer, died soon after the family arrived,
P. 277, column 2 - Zvi (Hausu) Hauser - son of Avish Hauser, Invested a great deal in his studies. His study partner was Shlomo Spirn. Zvi's brother Itche survived the war and made it to Israel.
Yoel Monheit and Hersh Wolf Zilber - was the son of Yona Monheit, (who was the older brother of Aharon Monheit)
Hersh Wolf Zilber's father passed away when Hersch was young. In addition to studies, he helped his mother at her kiosk in the market, Hersch died in exile in Siberia,
P. 278 -Mota Zilber - son of Rav Yaakov Zilber, Although he earned a Ph.d, he continued to be one of the Bet Midrash regulars. How he met his death at the hands of theNazis is unknown.
Aharon Golbberg (Teitelbaum) - In Israel Aharon adopted his mother's family name - Teitelbaum. He was very, very closed, and the only son to a wealthy family. His father Wolf had one of the biggest stores for housewares and electric goods in town His study partner was Yitzhak (Itche) Hauser. He had a good friend: Yitzhak Meir Miller .
Aharon's family suffered in Siberia during the war and his father died there. He and his mother survived, returned to Poland, and from there to Israel.
Long discourse on relations between Yaakov Fleisher and Teitelbaum, and on Teitelbaum's will.
Caption, page 279: Standing from the right: Getzel Schwartz, and two friends from Baranow - Yitzhak Zussman and Hirsch Werner. Seated Yaakov Yehoshua Fleisher.
There were a few men in Tarnobrazeg who made their living as wagon drivers, primarily taking people to and from the railroad which was 3 km out of town, It wasn't easy, because there wasn't much traffic in people or goods to of from out little town. Up until WW I and a few years after there were a few wagon owners who made minor efforts to adjust the wagon of the comfort of their passengers, The middle of the 1920s witnessed a great leap forward, Suddenly appeared in town attractive wagons with roofs, especially designed for passengers, and one of the first to acquire one was Yekutiel Kastenbaum. But progress didn't stop with the coaches, and soon it was heard that autobuses were making their way into use, and in some cases travel from city to city took even less time than by rail. One fine day an autobus appeared in Tarnobrzeg, driven by whom, if not Yekutiel's son Simcha Tuvia Kastenbaum. This wasn't simply progress….this was a revolution.The line was Tarnobrzeg - Tarnow, with departure at 6:00 a.m., and in the beginning with many people coming out not to journey, but simply to witness the event,
Soon a second bus, traveling to Rzeszow added, and then a third, and Rav Kastenbaum made a very good living. But to his credit, he gave of his weatlh generously to the needy.
Yosel the Water Drawer
Yaakov Fleisher - P. 281
From where he came, and who he was exactly, nobody seems to know. He was as quiet as a fish and never answered. No one even knows for sure if his name was Yossel, or if someone just gave it to him and it stuck,
But one must say to his credit: he was an extraordinary water drawer, even better than the two gentiles. Now only was he quick, he took his task with utmost seriousness. When demand grew he bought two harnesses so he could carry two buckets on each of his shoulders. Continues with a long and Isaac Bashevis Singer-like recounting of the trials and tribulations of Yossel, which end with World War II, after which time no one knows what became of him,
She was old when I first got to know her, and would say that at her age she forgot to count. But what is certain is that she continued in her Mitzvot and good works, as she had done since she was young. People in town thought she was well-to-do, but I know how she struggled for her esxistence. She was widowed at the outbreak of WWI, and owned a small grocery store, As the store was in the middle of the market, and close to the prison, she provided the kosher provisions for the Jewish prisoners, who were usually from the other side of the Vistula who came to Tarnobrzeg to panhandle, and as a result were arrested, She also brought food to Jews who were hospitalized. Grandma Friedela passed away a few months before WW!!.
Disaster in Dazikow - a horrifying account of our expulsion from T/D and the transfer to the death camp at Dembica. (by Yaakov Fleisher, P. 301)
Some people gathered in my house - Pinnea, Yisrael Warshasvsky, Mordechai Schniller, Federbush and Moshe Keller. My husband, Yechiel Epstein, was assigned to go to Rzeszow and see how they were coping with events. He returned and reported that they also were at a loss as to what to do.
There Returned a Portion of the Jews
Tarnobrzeg, their Lives are Settled
Caption P. 311 - Aharon Eliezer Tannenbaum
P. 311 - column 2 although in Yiddish, some names stand out:
Arush Nussbaum, Aharon Fensterstock, Matel Halper, Yehiel Kanaf
The Germans wanted to build a strategic road between Micosin and Camilov and 100 Jews were selected from the Dembica death camp for the assignment. Zvi Garfunkle was among them. The Bet Midrash in T/D was transformed into their barracks.
Matel Weinrib-Steinmeyer escaped from the work detail but was captured a few days later. He was hung, and when it appeared that he was dead he gave a mighty pull, opened the noose and fell to the ground. Accepted conventions that a man who "defeats" the gallows were not of interest to the detestable Nazis, and a few days later they took him to the woods and shot him,
P. 314 - There was an incident with the son of Israel Warshavshy, who had a store of cooking untensils in T/D, but he too was brutally murdered.
Caption 314 - Jews on thew work detail suffer at the hands of the Nazis.
Caption 315 - Jews of the forced labor detail
Garfunkle's account of the inhumane conditions of the work detail are extremely powerful, and may be more fully translated at a later date.
David Sher was among the few of the original 100 that was still alive at the end.
There were only about 60 Jewish families in Grombiv following WWI
P. 322 - Zvi had a brother Abraham
P. 323 - His father was Eliezer
Sunday morning, June 18. 1942 - the second, and final, expulstion from T/D/ Jews -were forced to march the 14 km to Baranow.
Barish Laufer was among the more elderly that were sent to the cemetery to be executed, but he was able to hide behind a tombstome. Later on he was able to jump on to a passing truck that was carrying younger Jews.
At Dembitz (Dembica?) all the elderly of Grombiv were murdered including Zvi's father, Wallfish Fortgang and his wife Manya, Eliezer Hauser and his wife, Eliezer Pomerantz, Wallfish Laufer and his wife.
During WWII some (portions of) families found refuge on the estate of Rosen Arthur Tarnowski (who was later captured by the Nazis.
Haim Kirschenbaum was Setlov's only survivor. During his tribulations he spent some time in the house of Yehoshua Zimmerman in T/D.
This Life in Liquidation, From Gheitz Calamity.
(From my Life Experience in the Time of the Disaster)
My father was in commerce and had a horse and wagon which he used to transfer goods between the local towns and villages. The wagon was very useful to them on the day of the explusion. Aharon had an uncle Michael Chechkenbaum.
Yaakov Youst, the son of David and Miriam Youst
Moshe Schlussel, the son of David and Devora Schlussel
In Freed Poland
P. 359 Captions
Top picture: General view of the new cemetery after the Holocaust
Bottom: One of the few tombstones in the new cemetery which remained intact
Caption 363 - First memorial service in the towm of Ulm, Germany
Caption 364 (top) - In the hall where the memorial was held
Bottom: taken at the displaced persons camp in Kassel, Germany
From the right: Yaakov Fleischer, Shalom Koren, and the last, David Weissler.
The founders of the T/D in Israel society included Schlussel, Birnhock, David Youst, Maret Devora Hauser, Rachel Perlman, Lean Goldbrenner, Alter Youst.
Other contributors to the Benevolence Fund included Bennie Shannel (USA)< Mrs. Chaya Horev, Moshe Birnhock (son of Benjamin).
Activities of the Committee Organization in Israel
P. 371 Caption: Memorial service in Tel Aviv, 1969
P. 372 - same caption as above
Founders and Activist in the Fund Good Deeds
Caption: Benyamin Birnhok as a young man
Caption: Chaya Horev
Committee Organization Tarnobrzeg in Israel
From top left: Yaakov Yitzhak Fleischer, David Schlissel, David Youst, Shifra Mentel (Nussbaum)
Bottom from the left: Shmuel Shaller, David Weisler, Yosef Zimmerman, Yosef Laufer, Yehoshua Klar
Holy People Celebrate the Book
Caption: Memorial Service in Tel Aviv, 1969 - The Dias
Pages of Memory and Eternity (Album)
P. 376 top right - Issachar Dov (Barish) Laufer and his wife Chaya
Top right: Arie Leib Halevi Zeidman, of blessed memory, son-in-law of Barish Laufer
Bottom (from the right) Yitzhak Hanoch Strom and his wife Pessel (nee Hauser) amd their son Alter Nissan.
The family of Yoseph Feit, of blessed memory( in the bottom row)
Top right: Elezar Melech Gold
Top left: Yaakov Beigel and his wife Pessia. Both of blessed memory
Bottom right: Haim Guttman, son of Elezar Melech
Bottom left: Mendel Topper
P. 377 - in Memorial Box: Yoseph, Tova, Esther, Yehoshua, and Alter Haim Kamito
P. 378 - Top right, from te right: Benyamin Birnhok, Abe Langer, Haim Youst, Feivel Erlich, Pessach Hertzl, Pessach Kastenbaum.
P. 378 top left: Sarah Zilber (Gerter)
P. 378 - in the middle - from the right, Shira and Moshe Zveiman, Raizel Rocker, Shmuel Koenigsberg.
P. 378 - Memorial Box - Chaya Laufer, David Laufer, Yisroel Laufer, Sarah Sheinman, Zecil Harringpas, Rachel Harringpas, Perel Harringpas.
Terror of the Holocaust ( Pictures)
P. 379 - caption top: en route to death
P. 379 - bottom: Mound of ashes of the Holy Ones
Saturday, May 17, 2014|